"I have spent 3 years in the past working at the Office of Naval Research. While I am not an expert in the phenomena behind what Mark and Serge are working in, I do know for a fact that it is real and very complex. I have seen these guys demonstrate their abilities and talked to several former colleagues from NRL and academia who also know and respect their work. They are opening doors that are on the cutting edge."
Posted Feb. 28, 2012 by retired US Navy Officer Edmond Pope, Author of "Torpedoed" to Alternative Energy Network, Linkedin Groups
Introduction to LENR - LeClair Effect Nuclear Reactions
The following section summarizes the eight year history of NanoSpire's work, theories, data and discoveries in the field of cavitation zero point energy and fusion by Mark LeClair and Sergio Lebid. The research culminated in the discovery of the LeClair effect and the performance of historic cavitation driven excess energy experiments that redefine physics, LENR and cold fusion.
In February, 2004 Mark L. LeClair, CEO
& Founder of NanoSpire, Inc., discovered a crystalline form of water, while
investigating the machining potential of the cavitation jets under a Maine
Technology Institute (MTI) seed grant SG1424, Cavitation Machining Prototype Development and MTI seed grant SG1803, Cavitation Machining Product Development.
The LeClair Effect behaviour was again observed by Mark LeClair, Principal
Investigator and Serge Lebid (Co-founder & NanoSpire EVP), co-investigator,
on a grant from 2005-2006, Feasibility Study for Cavitation Nanofabrication
Technology for Oxygen Sensor Manufacturing. Other co-investigators included faculty at Albany Nanotech, and
members of Deloitte & Touche, Cientifica and Sencer, Inc.. The grant was
funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
(NYSERDA), (Agreement #8250). Produced by the enormous pressure of
cavitation bubble collapse, many of the jets were seen to have facets and to
possess tremendous electrostatic charge. The crystal has an equilateral
triangular cylinder subunit that most commonly forms jet hexagon
cross-sections. The crystal is a series of repeating O-H bonds along its axis
and is bound by hydrogen bonds in the cross-sectional plane, a type of hybrid
bonded crystal known as a van der Waals crystal. The flexibility of the
hydrogen bonds allowed the crystal to assume a rich variety of shapes, most
commonly resembling a bacteriophage, with a large hexagonal faceted head and
narrow whip tail. The crystal tail can split into a fractal fan on impact. The
leading face closest to the bow shock and the sides of the crystal are
positively charged and the tail is negative, allowing the crystal to form
observed closed loops. The positive charge of the leading face and sides was revealed
by impacting the crystal into litmus paper. This created bright red hexagonal
impacts in green litmus paper, and purple hexagons in orange litmus paper, both
indicators of zero pH and large positive charge concentration on the crystal.
The MTI grant research showed that the crystallized jets would often carve long
trenches in materials guided by their electrostatic charge and removed far more
material than could be accounted for.
The crystal, moving at supersonic and
greater speeds, is surrounding by a bow shock like a fighter plane. The
positively charged crystal is attracted to its own negatively charged bow shock
by the Casimir Force and coherently extracts zero point energy on a large
scale. The crystal then accelerates to what appears to be relativistic speeds
in very short distances. This is implied by the heavy element transmutation
observed bull-dozed in front of the bow shock, the only way these heavy
elements are known to form in nature is either from stellar core collapse or
supernova explosions, both occurring at relativistic speeds. The transmutation
process observed in all the experiments closely matched the behaviour of
stellar fusion nucleosynthesis and both type I & II supernova shock
nucleosynthesis. This discovery will have a major effect on stellar evolution
astronomy, allowing stellar nucleosynthesis, stellar core collapse
nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis to all be studied on a desktop,
with varying compositions. The phenomenon of the water crystal propelled by the
attraction to its bow shock has been named the LeClair Effect. Based on the
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal, the LeClair Effect theory and the profound
discoveries based on it pose a serious quantum theory challenge to the
classical understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion and the
1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics.
In March, 2007 Mark LeClair built and
tested the first cavitation reactor powered by the LeClair Effect, based on our
patented technology. More research was done from 2007 to 2009 with a variety of
other reactor designs that led to a series of key experiments performed from
July – August, 2009 under a grant, titled: Utilization
of Crystallized Cavitation Reentrant Jets for Zero Point Energy Production. The
goal was to produce a next stage hot water heater reactor based on the LeClair
Effect and was awarded by a potential investor focused on promoting cold
fusion. Mark LeClair and Serge Lebid discovered that the scaled-up LeClair
Effect reactor was triggering intense fusion, fission and large scale elemental
transmutation using ordinary water. The 1.25” ID by 12” long reactor produced
2.9 kW of hot water using only 840 watts of input, a coefficient of performance
(COP) of 3.4 times more energy out than in. The water temperature was raised an
average of 18 degrees C (32 degrees F) average passing through the reactor with
28 degree C (50 degrees F) temperature spikes observed. A total of twelve
experiments were performed, with 100% repeatability of the high levels seen in
excess heat and transmutation in the various configurations.
Evidence of trenches generated by the
passage of the water crystal propelled by the LeClair Effect could be seen all
over the reactor cores. The positive crystal followed the induced negative
charge on the rows and columns of holes of the coiled perforated aluminium
plate that formed the reactor cores, with trenches usually going tangent to
tangent along the holes, orbiting the holes and also the sheet edges, all
guided by electrostatic attraction. Many of the holes were progressively filled
with transmuted material, transmuted material also formed on the sheet surface.
A uniform width melted heat affected zone (HAZ) along each side of the crystal
trenches could be seen. The trench was disrupted at many points along its
length by millimeter-sized pits from the apparent triggering of small supernova
explosions, which also contained macroscopic amounts of multicolored
The large scale transmutation of elements
was verified by three separate independent scanning electron microscope
elemental analysis (SEM-EDAX) of the transmuted material, including University
of Maine, Orono Laboratory for Surface Science & Technology (SEM-EDAX &
XPS under contract), by courtesy of Media Sciences, located in Oakland, New
Jersey and by courtesy of well-known Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR)
researcher and advocate Dr. Edmund Storms, formerly of Los Alamos in New Mexico. The University of Maine, Orono Chemistry
Department also performed an analysis known as XPS that measured nucleus
binding energy, confirming that the glassy coating seen covering much of the
reactor cores was diamond. The SEM analyses collectively detected a total of 34
elements ranging from carbon to polonium. The same samples analyzed by SEM-EDAX
and XPS were also analyzed with laser ablative inductively coupled plasma mass
spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) by Shiva Technologies (an operating unit of Evans
Analytical Group) located in Syracuse, NY. The more sensitive LA-ICP-MS
detected a total of 78 elements ranging from lithium to californium and 108
isotopes ranging from 7Li to 249Cf, a standard detection set that does not
include all the possible isotopes, but including most of the stable isotopes and
many short and long lived radioactive isotopes. Together, the five analyses
showed that nearly every element in the periodic table was detected in every
type of transmuted particle in different distributions, up to the limit of the
LA-ICP-MS detection range, californium.
The transmuted elements were produced as chips
up to one millimeter in size, in gram amounts and clouded the clear polystyrene
dishes they were placed in with rings of nuclear tracks from the radioactive
decay of short-lived isotopes. The composition of the transmuted material
followed the same patterns as supernova nucleosynthesis, mostly carbon and
oxygen (like white dwarves) with decreasing amounts of the heavier elements.
The elemental distribution followed the saw-tooth shaped astronomer’s odd-even
rule, with even numbered elements occurring in significantly greater amounts
than the odd elements because of the dominance of alpha particle fusion. The
isotope ratios matched those seen in both stellar and supernova
nucleosynthesis. Many radioactive extinct and non-naturally occurring elements
were detected, including isotopes of the transuranic elements. Most
importantly, all the rare earths, precious metals and many other key elements
were produced in high concentrations, greater than typically seen in most
naturally occurring ores.
The radiation emitted by the reactor left
nuclear tracks, burned the hole pattern of the core into the clear PVC core
enclosure, activated high neutron absorption cross-section 39Cl (56 minute
half-life) in the chlorine of the PVC core enclosure and transmuted the water
in the reactor into nearly all the other elements. The experiment also
accidentally resulted in acute radiation sickness beginning the day after the
August 25, 2009 experiments for both investigators Mark LeClair and Sergio
Lebid and lasted for more than a year.
LeClair Effect Theory
Incandescent substrate material vaporized during trench formation negatively charge the cavitation reentrant jet bow shock by thermionic emission. This attracts the largely positive, but polarized, macrocationic H2O crystal. The negative bow shock moves with the crystal and never touches the crystal’s positive face, maintaining the attraction. The effect disappears if the crystal speed drops below Mach 1, eliminating the bow shock.
The leading face of crystal and bow shock are in sub-micron proximity, their closely spaced conductive faces, separated by a near vacuum, satisfy the conditions for forming a resonant quantum harmonic oscillator, producing the Casimir force. The Casimir force, a form of electrostatic attraction, cause the bow shock to draw the crystal towards it, this accelerates the crystal. The bow shock does not respond with an equal and opposite force because of a proposed conflict between Newton’s classical First Law of Motion with the quantum theory based Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal. This forms the theoretical basis for the LeClair Effect, which is outlined below. The theory is derived from a combination of experimental observations and data and application of quantum theory to the known or implied conditions of the ultra-high speed crystal bow shock propagation through water and hard substrates.
Electrons on the bow shock are packed closely together because of the high speed of the crystal and are attracted to the high proton density of the crystal. The result is that the electrons have a high degree of fixed position on the crystal bow shock. The electrons of the incandescent bow shock surrounding the crystal are trapped in 3D quantum wells. Each electron is up against the van der Waals radius of adjacent electrons parallel to the surface of the bow shock and are also pinned to the shock surface in the perpendicular (normal) direction.
The Heisenberg Principal states that highly fixed objects must exhibit a proportionally highly degree of random momentum. The high degree of bow shock electron fixedness results in a high degree of random response of those same electrons to all forces, including both body and surface forces. A fixed electron on the bow shock pulled towards the crystal by the Casimir Force responds randomly in momentum magnitude, instead of with a momentum proportional to the attractive Casimir force. The randomized momentum of the bow shock electrons collectively form a randomized momentum Heisenberg Uncertainty Surface (HUS) that wraps around the crystal to form a randomized momentum Heisenberg Uncertainty Volume (HUV). Randomized forces exerted on the bow shock electrons of the HUS and the HUV constrained by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal can not respond in kind as an equal and opposite force and so conflict directly with Newton’s laws of motion. No new science is required, only the realization that Newton’s Laws are the special case, not the general, as they are with relativity.
The same effect of the HUS that propels the crystal also dramatically lowers the surface forces of frontal drag and skin friction on the bow shock that oppose the acceleration of the crystal. These forces are randomized in the same way as the equal and opposite reaction force. Furthermore, the HUV causes the volume enclosing the crystal to have the same randomizing effect on the momentum of all the atoms of the crystal. This results in radically lowered gravitational body forces and randomizes the response of inertial body forces, effectively erasing both. Randomized crystal inertia and drag offer little resistance to the acceleration produced by the Casimir Force.
The production of transuranic and other transmuted elements observed in the trenches by the LeClair Effect imply that relativistic speeds in excess of half the speed of light were achieved during crystal bow shock nucleosynthesis. Half the speed of light is the highest speed of the expanding shock wave of a supernova, the only known way in nature to nucleosynthesize the heaviest elements up to fermium.
High crystal velocity also generates positive acceleration feedback by bow shock compression. The closer the bow shock to the crystal leading face, the stronger the attraction from the Casimir Force and the faster the crystal goes. The faster the crystal goes, the more the bow shock compresses, raising attraction even further. Acceleration is evidenced by increasing width trenches.
The amount of material removed in the longest, semi-hexagonal trenches observed (up to 2 meters in length, 20-200 microns in width) also greatly exceeds the amount of material removed in a normal impact of the jet into a surface that forms a pit, by a factor of 5000X, based on highly accurate ASTM-G32 cavitation erosion resistance data that also forms a baseline for conservation of microjet initial kinetic energy. A proper scientific name for the trench formation phenomena by the crystal would be the LeClair Effect.
NanoSpire Cavitation Erosion Model Prediction of Fusion Thermodynamics
Mark LeClair of NanoSpire has solved the one hundred year old problem of accurately predicting cavitation erosion for all materials, as a function of cavitation and material properties. Researchers including Lord Kelvin, Lord Rayleigh and many scientists since their day have been unable to solve this seemingly intractable problem. Previous attempts at deriving an accurate general equation have been off by a factor of up to 300X compared to data.
Mark has derived a general equation for cavitation erosion that is a 98% R^2 curve fit for ASTM-G32 cavitation erosion data for 22 different materials. The equation takes van der Waals repulsion into account during high speed impact of cavitation reentrant jets. The equation predicts that a thin layer exists at the point of cavitation reentrant jet impact with a substrate where van der Waals repulsion dominates. The pressure in this thin zone is in the range of a few hundred up to just over a thousand gigapascals depending on the strength of the material.
The high van der Waals pressure at the point of impact, when combined with the observed impact temperature of a few thousand degrees C, is thermodynamically sufficient to ignite D-D fusion in medium strength or greater materials. No new physics is required, only proper application of known physics that takes the high pressure component of van der Waals repulsion experienced during cavitation jet impact into account. Past estimates by others for cavitation reentrant jet impact pressure using both Bernoulli's Equation and the Navier Stokes Equation are grossly in error.
The cavitation erosion equation has also been used to predict the onset of white dwarf, neutron star and black hole conditions as the crystal accelerates to relativistic speeds through increasingly dense material. Using appropriate densities of the material the crystal travels through, the cavitation erosion equation predicts reaching both electron and neutron degeneracy pressures at the same observed relativistic speeds seen in white dwarf type I supernova, stellar core collapse type II supernova and as neutron stars collapse into black holes.
NanoSpire Zero Point Energy/Fusion Research Results Summary
An experimental investigation of the utilization of crystallized cavitation reentrant jets for zero point energy production has been completed. The results of the test were profound. The apparatus produces excess heat, with temperature spikes of up to 28 degrees C and an average temperature increase of 18 degrees C observed in the flow traversing the reactor. The device produced a coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.4 times more thermal energy out than the electrical energy required as input to run the cavitating pump.
However, the most impressive result was that the LeClair Effect zero point energy mechanism that underlies the process also triggered intense fusion, fission and elemental transmutation.
Evidence of tracks generated by the passage of the water crystal as it carved LeClair Effect trenches could be seen following the rows, columns, edges and holes of the perforated plate from electrostatic and Casimir force attraction. A uniform width heat affected zone (HAZ) along each trench could be seen. The HAZ was disrupted at many points along each trench by the apparent triggering of microscopic nuclear explosions. This resulted in melted craters extending past the HAZ that also contained multicolored transmuted elements, fused to the underlying aluminum perforated plate substrate.
The perforated aluminum sheet and water that constitute the core of the device were apparently transmuted by a powerful neutron flux into macroscopic amounts (mg – gm) of all the elements. The coiled up aluminum sheet served to trap and amplify the neutrons and other radiation emitted by the LeClair Effect in the same manner as a neutron lens. The neutron flux was so strong, that the hole pattern of the perforated plate was burned into other nearby portions of the sheet in the form of a diamond coating, studded with all the elements.
Elemental distributions followed the distinct pattern of stellar nucleosynthesis and nucleosynthesis driven by supernovas. The elemental distributions were multiples of a helium nucleus, favoring the creation of even numbered elements, especially carbon and oxygen, the primary composition of a white dwarf star and identical to the elemental distributions seen in Type 1 and 2 supernova spectra’s. The elemental distributions included greater abundances of the lower atomic weight elements, with lesser amounts of the heavier elements, especially beyond iron, the limit of fusion nucleosynthesis. Elements that were heavier than iron are only formed in supernovas in nature.
The aluminum perforated plate that the transmuted particles were generated on showed a radioactivity level of 50 cpm that was 20% higher than the background level of 40 cpm.
The transmuted particles also demonstrated the presence of intense but short lived radioactive isotopes. Transmuted particles were placed into a polystyrene dish. The side of the dish exposed to the particles turned nearly opaque with nuclear tracks after only a few days after the experiment. The polystyrene plastic, a material commonly employed as a cloud chamber, showed the distinct presence of nucleus fission fragments, alpha particles, beta particles and non-spiraling neutron tracks.
Gamma rays emitted from radioactive lead 212 and it’s decay product bismuth 212 (both part of the thorium-232 decay series) and gamma rays emitted by cesium 137, along with alpha and beta emissions, were measured still emanating from the transmuted particles 21 days (September 16th) after the August 25th experiment. The analysis of the transmuted particles using sensitive scintillation counters was performed by the State of Maine Health and Environmental Testing Laboratory (HETL), under the supervision of the Maine Radiation Control Program. HETL analyzed all the lumped transmuted material together into a thick lead isolated chamber. Results showed that 4.34 picocuries of bismuth 212 gamma radiation sources were detected, along with 2.78 picocuries of lead 212. Gamma radiation emitted from cesium 137 (a uranium fission product) was detected at the minimum detection level of 0.810 picocuries.
Gross beta emissions from four wipes taken around the laboratory experimental area were measured at 1.81, 1.62, 1.23 and 0.330 picocuries. Three other wipes gave off alpha emissions measured at 0.199, 0.147 and 0.0574 picocuries.
Using the half-life formula and the half-lives of each short-lived isotope detected, it can be predicted that each of the sources measured at picocurie levels 21 days after the experiment were at curie levels the day they were produced in the experiment.
Isotope analysis was performed using laser ablative mass spectrometry. The isotope data revealed the production of nearly every element as the SEM-EDAX data did. It further showed that the isotope ratios were generally not similar to solar abundances.
The harnessing of the LeClair Effect zero point energy phenomena was a tremendous success and triggered intense fusion and fission as a byproduct. Further data collection including isotopic ratio analysis of the transmuted particles will provide additional data that will meet the high standard of scientific proof required to substantiate the historic discovery of triggering fusion in ordinary water.
The underlying zero point energy mechanism of the LeClair Effect challenges the legitimacy of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, extracting energy from a quantum reservoir in amounts large enough to trigger fusion. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal, inherent in the powering of the LeClair Effect, further challenges Newton’s laws of motion for reaction and other opposing forces.
The discovery of the zero point energy based LeClair Effect triggering fusion, fission and large scale elemental transmutation by Mark LeClair and Serge Lebid was historic and could solve both the energy and natural resource crisises. The LeClair Effect explains excess heat and transmutation observed in electrolytic cells (Pons, Fleischmann & others) and by hydrodynamic means such as the Griggs pump or sonofusion (ultrasound), cavitation is present in all of them. The current technology could easily provide large scale production of hot water for residential, commercial and industrial hot water at a capital and operating cost far lower than fossil fuel, nuclear and other LENR-based technologies.
Cavitation Fusion Competitive Advantages
Other fusion competitors are pursuing fusion triggered by plasma (tokomaks, Buzzard fusion, laser inertial confinement) and also by cavitation (cavitation bubble inertial confinement, ultrasound, and hydrodynamic methods). NanoSpire’s in-house cavitation expertise is unrivalled anywhere in the world, placing us far ahead of the competition in the cavitation fusion space. The use of controlled cavitation reentrant jets is far more powerful than cavitation bubble driven schemes. The use of plasmas is many years away from achieving the break-even point for the energy required to produce fusion. All the competing technologies are complex and require huge, expensive capital equipment investment. NanoSpire technology is safer, simpler and utilizes inexpensive capital equipment to produce fusion. We have already gone beyond break-even, producing significantly more energy than is required to trigger the process.